Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are endangered and found only
in the DRC.
A recent report by conservation NGO Rainforest Foundation UK (RFUK) is decrying what they say is Norwegian government complicity in funding a project they allege could result in the clearance of vast tracts of Congo rainforest and the release of billions of tons of carbon into the atmosphere.
RFUK's report spotlights a project funded through Norway's Central Africa Forest Initiative (CAFI) that would increase the area comprised by logging concessions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by 20 million hectares. Its analysis found the concessions stand to include 10,000 square kilometers of peat swamp, and if actively logged, could release as much as 3.8 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere.
Norway's Ministry of Climate and Environment says the report is overblown and the situation more complicated than RFUK contends.
Per F. I. Pharo, director of the Government of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative, said an amended project proposal is under review and will not be accepted unless various conditions are met: "Among the key recommendations Norway has made to the program document is the importance that the program document should not conclude on important policy choices that should be the product of a thorough and inclusive process at country level."
A recent report by conservation NGO Rainforest Foundation UK (RFUK) is decrying what they say is Norwegian government complicity in funding a project they allege could result in the clearance of vast tracts of Congo rainforest and the release of billions of tons of carbon into the atmosphere. But Norway’s Ministry of Climate and Environment says the report is overblown and the situation more complicated than RFUK contends.
RFUK’s report spotlights a project funded through Norway’s Central Africa Forest Initiative (CAFI) that it says could increase the area comprised by logging concessions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by 20 million hectares. The project is part the French Development Agency (AFD)’s Sustainable Forest Management Programme.
According to the report, the concessions stand to include more than 10,000 square kilometers of peat swamp. Peat is a kind of swampy soil made up of partially decayed organic matter that accumulates over hundreds, even thousands, of years. Often reaching more than four meters (13 feet) deep, areas of peat have been found as deep as 20 meters (65 feet).
Naturally waterlogged, peat becomes highly combustible if it is drained and dries out. And if fire ignites on dried peatland, it can be extremely difficult to stop. Such was the case in Indonesia at the end of 2015 when the country and others nearby were racked with a haze crisis so severe that scientists estimate it contributed to the premature deaths of at least 100,000 people and released more CO2 than Germany does in a year. The haze was caused by smoke from out-of-control wildfires, primarily on peatlands that had been drained for agriculture, which burned an area the size of the U.S. state of Vermont. In response, Indonesia’s president Joko Widodo banned clearing and conversion of the country’s remaining peatlands.
Areas allotted for timber concessions in the DRC overlie parts of world’s largest known tropical peatland. Mapped for the first time earlier this year, this massive peat swamp comprises approximately 145,500 square kilometers (56,200 square miles) – an area equivalent to England in size. Researchers estimate it stores some 30 billion metric tons of carbon.
Logging on swamplands is prohibited in the DRC. But in its report, RFUK contends the legislation does not actually define what constitutes a swamp, thus potentially creating a loophole for exploitation.
RFUK estimates about 2.8 billion metric tons of peatland carbon may be released if forest is destroyed in new concession areas. In total, the organization says 3.4 billion metric tons of carbon could be emitted if concessions become active.
“Analysis carried out by the Rainforest Foundation UK (RFUK) indicates that, as well as releasing ~0.6 billion tonnes (Gt) of carbon dioxide from the direct impact of logging activities, the likely new logging areas would substantially overlap areas of high carbon peatlands, placing an additional 2.8 Gt of carbon – or roughly 10.4 Gt of carbon dioxide – at increased risk of release to the atmosphere if these critical ecosystems are degraded and destroyed,” RFUK writes in their report. “This is equivalent to nearly 200 years of Norway’s current national annual greenhouse gas emissions.”
Further analysis by RFUK indicates illegal concessions currently comprise around five million hectares. The organization urges Norway to aim its attention at canceling and dismantling these concessions rather than funding the establishment of more.
“By refusing to insist that Congo’s illegal concessions are shut down, it is encouraging impunity for law-breaking and bad forest governance,” RFUK director Simon Counsell said in a statement. “Norway should now state that its funding for DRC’s forestry projects will be halted until all illegal logging concessions have been cancelled.”
A mysterious contract
Independent researcher Arnaud Labrousse commended the RFUK report as “excellent.” Labrousse specializes in Central Africa forestry issues, and brought up additional concerns about an alleged award of a 10 million euro ($11.7 million) REDD+ contract by DRC’s Kabila administration to French firm CERENE Services to map 1.5 million hectares of DRC forest.
In brief, REDD+ stands for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and is a program administered under the UN Framework on Climate Change (UNFCC) that aims to mitigate carbon emissions through improved forest management in tropical countries. Under REDD+, developed countries provide financial incentives to developing countries to help them pay for forest management enhancement projects.
Norway’s CAFI is one of these projects – the largest-ever in Africa when it signed a letter of intent (LoI) for $200 million with DRC’s Minister of Finance in April 2016.
CERENE was on the verge of bankruptcy in 2011, according to French investigative and opinion journal Mediapart. CERENE’s “innovation director” Gérard Royal is the brother of Ségolène Royal, who was France’s environment minister at the time the contract was awarded, leading Labrousse to question if the company benefited from a political “boost” during negotiations. The funding source of the contract has not been made publicly available, but Labrousse refers to it as an “enormous elephant in the room” for CAFI, which he says is “desperately trying to convince NGOs that the present government is a credible interlocutor.”
Association between CAFI and CERENE was refuted by Per F. I. Pharo, director of the Government of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative.
“CAFI is not, and do not plan to be, involved in CERENE generally and this contract more specifically,” Pharo told Mongabay. “We are not familiar with the details of this contract, including how it will be financed.”
Pharo said he and his colleagues are working to collect more information about the CERENE contract and allegations involving the company and “whether it will be appropriate for CAFI to take any action.”
Mongabay reached out to CERENE and the DRC’s Ministry of Finance, but no responses were forthcoming.
Norway did not respond lightly to RFUK’s report. In a statement released earlier this month, the Ministry of Climate and Environment took exception to the report’s claim that the country’s approach to protecting DRC forest is to “hand it over to the logging companies.”
“These allegations have no basis in reality,” the statement reads.
The statement goes on to explain that effective management of DRC forests is a “challenging task” due to weak governing capacity, structural deficiencies and continued instability from long periods of conflict.
The statement points to CAFI successes such as the revocation of illegal logging concessions, as well as the rejection of an initial proposal.
“Reform of DRC’s commercial logging sector is one component of this program (though receiving less than 2% of the overall CAFI funding to DRC). RFUK is well aware that their allegations towards Norway and CAFI all relate to a project proposal that has been rejected by the technical committee of DRC’s national REDD+ fund, in large measure due to concerns raised by Norway.”
In emails to Mongabay, Pharo said a revised version of the proposal has been submitted by the AFD and will be reviewed again by a technical committee in the coming weeks.
“Among the key recommendations Norway has made to the program document is the importance that the program document should not conclude on important policy choices that should be the product of a thorough and inclusive process at country level,” Pharo said. “Furthermore, we have insisted on the sequencing and quality of the activities related to the industrial sector, and made it clear that the logging moratorium can only be considered lifted, if and when the conditions set out in the LoI and the Congolese law have been met.”
Okapis (Okapia johnstoni) were discovered by scientists in
the early 19002 and are found only in the DRC.
A governmental moratorium on new logging concessions has been in place in the DRC since 2002. According to the LoI, the conditions required for lifting it include the integration of REDD+ and sustainable development projects.
“We also believe the program needs to strengthen the focus on the social aspects of the forest sector, strengthen the budgets to the independent forest monitoring and combatting illegal logging, build upon the lessons learned and already existing processes related to community forests,” Pharo said.
He continued, explaining that risk management is key to the program’s success: “We know that the risks are high in the forest sector. Since the first proposal was drafted, the national REDD fund in DRC has organized a five days multi stakeholder risk management work shop in Kinshasa that has identified risk elements for the forest sector and possible mitigation actions. AFD has thus been asked to incorporate this work in the revised proposal.”
Pharo said RFUK’s analysis wrongly assumed that old concessions phased out prior to 2005 will be reestablished in the future. This is not likely to happen, he said, because many overlie swamp areas where logging is prohibited, logging areas can only be extended once the LoI’s conditions have been met and, in the event these conditions are met, potential new logging areas will be defined via a “thorough consultative and targeted land use planning process.”
“Provided that our comments are taken into account, we see this program as an opportunity to improve the forest management and governance in DRC,” Pharo said. “Unlike the picture RFUK is drawing in its communication, this is a broad program that will, among other things, support DRC to establish, through an inclusive process, a new forest policy, an action plan to combat illegal logging, strengthen the independent monitoring of the forest sector, strengthen the authorities’ capacity to enforce their laws, testing different forest management models and supporting more sustainable forest management.
“In sum, the ambition is that the program will contribute to reduced emissions, not increased, as indicated by RFUK.”
A challenging task
Despite differences of opinion on how to best protect and manage the DRC’s forests, one commonality emerges: a hard road lies ahead. Both RFUK’s report and Norway’s statement highlight governance issues as major roadblocks to affecting successful conservation programs in the country, a sentiment shared by other institutions such as UK-based independent policy institute Chatham House.
“The RF-UK briefing highlights some of the major challenges that are facing DRC’s forest sector – namely, the very weak governance in the country which means there is limited ability for the government to control its forest resources and to implement effective planning and management,” said Chatham House’s Alison Hoare. Hoare is a senior research fellow whose expertise includes forest governance, natural resource use and community forestry.
To illustrate the scale of the challenge in the DRC, Hoare points to Chatham House research estimating that 90 percent of logging in the country was done illegally as of 2013. The study attributes most of this logging to small, informal operations that supply domestic and regional markets, and found the volume of harvesting had doubled over the previous six years as population and income levels increased.
Satellite data from the University of Maryland show tree cover loss rates growing steadily over the past decade in the DRC, peaking at more than 1.3 million hectares (13,000 square kilometers) in 2014 before dipping back down to 928,000 hectares in 2015. Most of this loss occurred in and around primary forests.
Hoare underlined the need for a sustainable forest sector in the DRC, one that will help alleviate poverty while meeting greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. But she said that for this to be possible, the country’s governance must significantly improve. She lauded Norway and CAFI’s acknowledgment of this issue.
“This has been clearly recognized by Norway, and the other CAFI partners, as reflected by the milestones set out in the LOI,” Hoare said via email. “It is also very positive that Norway has highlighted the importance of the sequencing and the quality of the activities that it supports.”
But, Hoare cautioned, much work remains to be done if the DRC is going to meet the LoI’s milestones set for the end of 2018.
“These include: adoption of a forest policy, based on a participatory process with all relevant stakeholders; implementation of local & community forest management models; application of the Forest Code to all existing Concessions; and elaboration of an ambitious plan to fight illegal logging,” she said. “Further, the milestones note the need to meet the legal conditions before the logging moratorium is lifted, and also to implement land-use planning.”
Hoare said that succeeding in these milestones would be a “remarkable achievement” for the DRC and urged CAFI to target its support at activities that will help make such an achievement a reality.
“Most importantly, this means establishing an effective legal and institutional framework for the sector, and ensuring much greater transparency and accountability,” Hoare said. By Morgan Erickson-Davis MONGABAY
Children in central Democratic Republic of Congo are bearing the brunt of violence between the army and a local militia which has uprooted at least 1.4 million people over the past year, the U.N. children's agency (UNICEF) said on Friday. Six in 10 of those forced to flee their homes in the conflict-ravaged Kasai region - about 850,000 - are children, leaving them prey to attack, detention, sexual violence, and recruitment by militia fighters, according to the U.N. agency. More than 3,300 people have been killed in Kasai since the start of an insurrection in August by the Kamuina Nsapu militia, which wants the withdrawal of military forces from the area. Kasai is the scene of a growing humanitarian disaster in a nation where violence has spiraled since President Joseph Kabila refused to step down when his mandate ended in December. "The crisis is having a devastating impact on children," UNICEF representative Tajudeen Oyewale said in a statement. "The lives of hundreds of thousands of children and their families in Kasai have been turned upside down by this brutal violence." Oyewale added that the violence had disrupted access to healthcare and education in Kasai, which UNICEF described as one of the world's worst displacement crises for children. More than 5,000 children in the region have been separated from their families, and at least 100 were killed in the first three months of the year, according to UNICEF's latest figures. About half of militia members are estimated to be children - many younger than 15 - and more than 500 have been deployed as fighters or used as human shields, the agency said. "The future of an entire generation of children is at risk in the Kasai region," added Oyewale. The violence in Kasai has stoked fears of a wider conflict in the central African giant, a tinderbox of ethnic rivalry and competing claims over mineral resources. Wars at the turn of the century killed millions and sucked in neighboring countries. Some 3.8 million Congolese are uprooted within the country, more than in any other African country, and about 7.3 million need aid urgently, according to U.N. data. The United Nations this week named three experts to lead an international investigation into killings and other crimes in Kasai, having accused "elements" of Congo's army of digging most of dozens of mass graves discovered there in recent months. The government has repeatedly denied its troops were responsible for the graves. Writing By Kieran Guilbert, Editing by Emma Batha Reuters
The United Nations has identified an additional 38 probable mass graves in Democratic Republic of Congo's central Kasai region, it said on Wednesday, bringing the total to at least 80 since the outbreak of an insurrection last August. More than 3,300 people have been killed and 1.4 million forced to flee their homes in Kasai since the start of the insurrection by the Kamuina Nsapu militia, which wants the withdrawal of military forces from the area. A spokesman for the U.N. peacekeeping mission in Congo told reporters in the capital Kinshasa that the graves were identified across six different sites during a joint mission to western Kasai last week with Congolese military investigators. The government has blamed the militia for mass graves discovered in neighbouring Kasai-Central province and also claims that some of the alleged mass graves identified by U.N. investigators have not turned out to contain bodies. But witnesses in Kasai-Central interviewed in March by Reuters said they had seen army trucks dumping bodies and the United Nations has repeatedly accused Congolese troops of using excessive force. The government denies that its troops have systematically used excessive force, although a court convicted seven soldiers last week for murdering suspected militia members in a massacre that was caught on video.
Reporting By Aaron Ross; Editing by Tim Cocks from Reuters
The Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa is one of the world’s most resource-rich countries. A wide range of rare minerals can be found here in abundance, all commanding high prices in world commodity markets. Diamonds for jewellery, tantalum, tungsten and gold for electronics; uranium used in power generation and weaponry and many others. Congo has copious deposits of raw materials that are in high demand internationally but remains one of the poorest countries in the world.
From colonisation, with the horrors of slavery and other atrocities, to a turbulent and equally brutal present in which militant groups control the mines, Congo’s richness in natural resources has brought nothing but misery. Referred to as “conflict minerals”, these riches leave only a trail of death, destruction and poverty.
Under Belgian rule, Congolese labourers were often required to meet quotas when mining different minerals. Failure could mean punishment by having a hand cut off with a machete. The country gained independence in 1960, but that didn’t put a stop to slave and child labour or to crimes being committed to extract and exploit the minerals. Warring militant fractions from inside the country and beyond seized control of mines for their own benefit while terrorising local populations.
For our translator, Bernard Kalume Buleri, his country’s history of turmoil is very personal; like most Congolese people, he and his family fell victim to the unending mineral based power struggle. Born in the year of his country’s independence, he has lived through war and seen his homeland torn apart by violent looting and greed. His story is a damning testament, illustrating how nature’s bounty, instead of being a blessing, becomes a deadly curse.